DHILLA KHAIRUNNISA IKBAR
CHEMISTRY OF PGMIPA BI
1. a) Explain how the concept of organic coumpounds from petroleum can be used as a fuel for vehicles such as car, motor bike , including aircraft
ANSWER : In my opinion, the concept of organic compounds can be used as a fuel is for the welfare of the earth. Petroleum and natural gas is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. Hydrocarbon component is the component most plentiful in the oil and natural gas. Natural gas consists of alkanes, ie methane, ethane, propane, and butane. In addition to alkanes there are also many other gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas wells also contain helium. The presence of oil and a wide range of dairy products have benefits that are very important in our daily lives, for example, fuel use vehicles such as cars, motorcycles, including aircraft. Without it possible without education, the economy, agriculture and other aspects will not be able to run smoothly.
Petroleum is usually located 3-4 km below sea level. Petroleum is obtained by making the well bore. Crude oil gained accommodated in tankers or piped into a tank station or oil refinery. Crude Oil (cude oil) black viscous liquid and smelled dreadful. Crude oil can not be used as fuel or for other purposes, but must be processed first. Crude oil contains about 500 types of hydrocarbons by the number of atoms C-1 to 50. Hydrocarbons boiling point increases with the number of C atoms inside the molecule. Therefore, the processing of petroleum through distillation storey, where crude oil is separated into groups (fractions) with similar boiling points.
As for the process of the oil is
Distillation is the separation of petroleum fractions based on differences in their boiling points.
Cracking is the decomposition of hydrocarbon molecules are large molecules into smaller hydrocarbons
Reforming is a change of molecular shape is not good quality petrol (straight carbon chain) into gasoline quality is better (branched carbon chain).
4. Alkylation and POLYMERIZATION
Alkylation is an increase in the number of atoms in the molecule into a longer molecule and branched. Polymerization is the process of incorporation of small molecules into large molecules.
Blending process is the addition of additive materials into petroleum fractions in order to improve the quality of the product.
b) explain it how the idea of chemical coumpounds from petroleum can be used to make clothing and plastic and material needs of other human lives .
ANSWER : Oil is a natural material with different types of chemical compounds, which can be used in a variety of industrial raw materials.
Plastic is an elastic material, heat resistant, easy to set up, lighter than wood, and are not corroded by the moisture. Plastics other than it’s cheap, it also can be used as an insulator and easily colored. Building materials derived from hydrocarbons in general the form of plastic. Plastic base material similar to LPG, which is a polymer of propylene, are compounds olefin / alkenes of carbon chains C3. Of plastic material is then so assorted from roofs (plastic tiles), furniture, interior equipment, bumper cars, tables, chairs, dishes, etc..
Of hydrocarbon material that can be used for clothing is PTA (purified terephthalic acid), which is made of para-xylene in which the material is essentially kerosene (kerosene). Of kerosene is all the material formed into compound Aromat, the para-xylene.Para-xylene is then oxidized using air from a PTA PTA shaped like detergent powder is then reacted with methanol into polyester fibers. Fiber poly ester which is the synthetic yarn that looks like a thread. Almost all the uniforms we wear may be made of polyester. To facilitate their identification can be seen from the price. Price clothing made of synthetic polyester yarns are usually relatively cheaper than clothing made from raw cotton, silk or other natural fibers.
Subtlety material made from polyester fibers affected by additive substances (additives) in the process of making yarn (PTA when reacting with methanol).
For matters of art, especially painting, the main role of hydrocarbons exist in the ink / oil paint and solvent. Hydrocarbons are used for solvent paints are made of Low Aromatic White Spirit or LAWS mmerupakan solvent resulting from the Pertamina refinery in Plaju with a boiling point range between 145o C – 195o C. LAWS hidrokarbonyang form solvent compound is a mixture of paraffin, cycloparaffins, and aromatic hydrocarbons.
hydrocarbon materials are also used for cosmetic aesthetic is a candle. For example lipstick, waxing (hair removal using a foot candle) or other material mixing cosmetic, pharmaceutical or shoe polish. Paraffin Wax is produced by Refineries in Indonesia Pertamina Balikpapan UP-V filtering through press. Qualifications PERTAMINA quality wax based quality associated with the melting point, color and oil content. Types of candles and purposes more widely.
2. Explain why the hydrocarbon asymetrical or chiral have a variety of benefit for human being . and describe how does it the chiral centers can be formed.
Answer : If there duah atoms bonded to the same carbon atom, the molecule will have a plane of symmetry (plane of symmetry). If you imagine cutting through the molecule, the right side will be the same with the left.
When four different atoms bonded to the atom. Not terdapatsimetri on molekul.Molekul that does not have a field called chiral symmetry. The carbon atoms in which four different atoms bonded core called chiral or asymmetric carbon atom.
The molecule on the left (which has a plane of symmetry) is called sebagaiakiral.
Only chiral molecules have optical isomers.
the chiral hydrocarbon molecules change shape when it will be changed also benefit.
the hydrocarbon molecules are chiral when benthic changing it will change again the benefits are one of the benefits of chiral compounds as drugs.
for the central carbon asymmetry A simple method for identifying the chiral molecules involves identifying known as asymmetric carbon center. This works great for chiral molecules,
but it is important to realize that it is not everything and there are some cases where it would not be appropriate / suitable. For example, some chiral molecules have an asymmetric carbon center, and several molecules have more than one chiral carbon centers are not asymmetric.
Typically, a compound will have optical isomers if there are four different substituents
attached to the carbon center (Figure 3.50). In this case, the mirror image is
nonsuperimposable and structure will be two configurations called isomers were then called enantiomers. Carbon center containing four different substituents is known as stereogenic or asymmetric center. A solution of each of the enantiomers or optical isomers able to rotate plane of polarized light. One enantiomer will rotate the plane of polarized light clockwise while the other (mirror image) will rotate counter-clockwise by the same amount. A mixture of two isomers (a racemate) will not rotate plane of polarized light at all. In all other respects, the two isomers are identical and therefore the physical and chemical properties can not be distinguished. Asymmetric centers in the molecule shown (Figure 3.51) has been identified with an asterisk. Structures that do not have a center of symmetry or achiral asymmetric and has no optical isomers. A structure can also have more than one asymmetric center.
3. When ethylene gas produced from a ripe fruit can be used to ripe other fruits that are still unripe. How do you idea when the gas is used as fuel gas like methane gas
Answer : I think ethylene gas can be used as fuel, the Ethylene Oxide, Ethylene oxide reacted with water to produce ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol is used as an anti-freeze and engine coolant could also be made in the basic fuel like other fuels may be with the addition of certain materials or the reaction.
4. Aromatic compounds are marked by ease of adjacent electrons conjugated. Please explain why an unsaturated compound which highly conjugated but is not aromatic.
Aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of chemicals that are characterized by having a molecular structure called a benzene ring. The simplest aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene, chemical and hydrocarbon structure is lent its name to the benzene ring. Many toxic aromatic hydrocarbons, and they are unfortunately among the most widespread organic pollutants. Many toxic aromatic hydrocarbons, and they are unfortunately among the most widespread organic pollutants.
Aromatic compounds are derivatives of benzene. simple aromatic compounds, is an aromatic organic compound that consists only of conjugate planar ring structure with the π electron cloud berdelokalisasi. Chemistry is characterized by conjugated double bonds actually in the ring. Aromatic ring heterocyclic compounds can be simple if it contains non-carbon atoms. It may monocyclic such as benzene, naphthalene such bicyclic, or polycyclic like anthracene. Monocyclic aromatic ring is usually a simple five-membered ring, such pirola, or six-membered rings, such as pyridine. All aromatic compounds based on benzene, C6H6 which has six carbon atoms and each corner of the hexagon symbol has a carbon atom bound with hydrogen
Benzene and its derivatives classified in a number of aromatic compounds, is first classification solely based on the flavor of the part of the said compounds. Development of the next stage chemistry chemists realize that the classification should be based on the chemical structure and reactivity, and not on the basis of physical properties. Currently, the term aromatic is retained, but it refers to the fact that all the aromatic compounds of high and stable degree ketidakjenuhannya when dealing with the attacking reagent bonding pi (π). have the pi electrons in the cyclic arrangement of the 2p orbitals as 4n +2 (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, …). so if the bond does not form an aromatic ring. probably because the compound is not an established chain of benzene C or can also occur on the fault and the binding reaction.