MID SEMESTER ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1

DHILLA KHAIRUNNISA IKBAR
RSA1C111015
CHEMISTRY OF PGMIPA BI

1. a) Explain how the concept of organic coumpounds from petroleum can be used as a fuel for vehicles such as car, motor bike , including aircraft
ANSWER : In my opinion, the concept of organic compounds can be used as a fuel is for the welfare of the earth. Petroleum and natural gas is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. Hydrocarbon component is the component most plentiful in the oil and natural gas. Natural gas consists of alkanes, ie methane, ethane, propane, and butane. In addition to alkanes there are also many other gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas wells also contain helium. The presence of oil and a wide range of dairy products have benefits that are very important in our daily lives, for example, fuel use vehicles such as cars, motorcycles, including aircraft. Without it possible without education, the economy, agriculture and other aspects will not be able to run smoothly.
Petroleum is usually located 3-4 km below sea level. Petroleum is obtained by making the well bore. Crude oil gained accommodated in tankers or piped into a tank station or oil refinery. Crude Oil (cude oil) black viscous liquid and smelled dreadful. Crude oil can not be used as fuel or for other purposes, but must be processed first. Crude oil contains about 500 types of hydrocarbons by the number of atoms C-1 to 50. Hydrocarbons boiling point increases with the number of C atoms inside the molecule. Therefore, the processing of petroleum through distillation storey, where crude oil is separated into groups (fractions) with similar boiling points.
As for the process of the oil is
1. Distillation
Distillation is the separation of petroleum fractions based on differences in their boiling points.
2. CRACKING
Cracking is the decomposition of hydrocarbon molecules are large molecules into smaller hydrocarbons
3. Reforming
Reforming is a change of molecular shape is not good quality petrol (straight carbon chain) into gasoline quality is better (branched carbon chain).
4. Alkylation and POLYMERIZATION
Alkylation is an increase in the number of atoms in the molecule into a longer molecule and branched. Polymerization is the process of incorporation of small molecules into large molecules.
5. Blending
Blending process is the addition of additive materials into petroleum fractions in order to improve the quality of the product.
b) explain it how the idea of chemical coumpounds from petroleum can be used to make clothing and plastic and material needs of other human lives .
ANSWER : Oil is a natural material with different types of chemical compounds, which can be used in a variety of industrial raw materials.
a. Board
Plastic is an elastic material, heat resistant, easy to set up, lighter than wood, and are not corroded by the moisture. Plastics other than it’s cheap, it also can be used as an insulator and easily colored. Building materials derived from hydrocarbons in general the form of plastic. Plastic base material similar to LPG, which is a polymer of propylene, are compounds olefin / alkenes of carbon chains C3. Of plastic material is then so assorted from roofs (plastic tiles), furniture, interior equipment, bumper cars, tables, chairs, dishes, etc..
• Clothing
Of hydrocarbon material that can be used for clothing is PTA (purified terephthalic acid), which is made of para-xylene in which the material is essentially kerosene (kerosene). Of kerosene is all the material formed into compound Aromat, the para-xylene.Para-xylene is then oxidized using air from a PTA PTA shaped like detergent powder is then reacted with methanol into polyester fibers. Fiber poly ester which is the synthetic yarn that looks like a thread. Almost all the uniforms we wear may be made of polyester. To facilitate their identification can be seen from the price. Price clothing made of synthetic polyester yarns are usually relatively cheaper than clothing made from raw cotton, silk or other natural fibers.
Subtlety material made from polyester fibers affected by additive substances (additives) in the process of making yarn (PTA when reacting with methanol).
• ART
For matters of art, especially painting, the main role of hydrocarbons exist in the ink / oil paint and solvent. Hydrocarbons are used for solvent paints are made of Low Aromatic White Spirit or LAWS mmerupakan solvent resulting from the Pertamina refinery in Plaju with a boiling point range between 145o C – 195o C. LAWS hidrokarbonyang form solvent compound is a mixture of paraffin, cycloparaffins, and aromatic hydrocarbons.
• AESTHETIC
hydrocarbon materials are also used for cosmetic aesthetic is a candle. For example lipstick, waxing (hair removal using a foot candle) or other material mixing cosmetic, pharmaceutical or shoe polish. Paraffin Wax is produced by Refineries in Indonesia Pertamina Balikpapan UP-V filtering through press. Qualifications PERTAMINA quality wax based quality associated with the melting point, color and oil content. Types of candles and purposes more widely.
2. Explain why the hydrocarbon asymetrical or chiral have a variety of benefit for human being . and describe how does it the chiral centers can be formed.
Answer : If there duah atoms bonded to the same carbon atom, the molecule will have a plane of symmetry (plane of symmetry). If you imagine cutting through the molecule, the right side will be the same with the left.
When four different atoms bonded to the atom. Not terdapatsimetri on molekul.Molekul that does not have a field called chiral symmetry. The carbon atoms in which four different atoms bonded core called chiral or asymmetric carbon atom.
The molecule on the left (which has a plane of symmetry) is called sebagaiakiral.
Only chiral molecules have optical isomers.
the chiral hydrocarbon molecules change shape when it will be changed also benefit.
the hydrocarbon molecules are chiral when benthic changing it will change again the benefits are one of the benefits of chiral compounds as drugs.

for the central carbon asymmetry A simple method for identifying the chiral molecules involves identifying known as asymmetric carbon center. This works great for chiral molecules,
but it is important to realize that it is not everything and there are some cases where it would not be appropriate / suitable. For example, some chiral molecules have an asymmetric carbon center, and several molecules have more than one chiral carbon centers are not asymmetric.
Typically, a compound will have optical isomers if there are four different substituents
attached to the carbon center (Figure 3.50). In this case, the mirror image is
nonsuperimposable and structure will be two configurations called isomers were then called enantiomers. Carbon center containing four different substituents is known as stereogenic or asymmetric center. A solution of each of the enantiomers or optical isomers able to rotate plane of polarized light. One enantiomer will rotate the plane of polarized light clockwise while the other (mirror image) will rotate counter-clockwise by the same amount. A mixture of two isomers (a racemate) will not rotate plane of polarized light at all. In all other respects, the two isomers are identical and therefore the physical and chemical properties can not be distinguished. Asymmetric centers in the molecule shown (Figure 3.51) has been identified with an asterisk. Structures that do not have a center of symmetry or achiral asymmetric and has no optical isomers. A structure can also have more than one asymmetric center.

3. When ethylene gas produced from a ripe fruit can be used to ripe other fruits that are still unripe. How do you idea when the gas is used as fuel gas like methane gas
Answer : I think ethylene gas can be used as fuel, the Ethylene Oxide, Ethylene oxide reacted with water to produce ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol is used as an anti-freeze and engine coolant could also be made in the basic fuel like other fuels may be with the addition of certain materials or the reaction.

4. Aromatic compounds are marked by ease of adjacent electrons conjugated. Please explain why an unsaturated compound which highly conjugated but is not aromatic.
Answer :
Aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of chemicals that are characterized by having a molecular structure called a benzene ring. The simplest aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene, chemical and hydrocarbon structure is lent its name to the benzene ring. Many toxic aromatic hydrocarbons, and they are unfortunately among the most widespread organic pollutants. Many toxic aromatic hydrocarbons, and they are unfortunately among the most widespread organic pollutants.
Aromatic compounds are derivatives of benzene. simple aromatic compounds, is an aromatic organic compound that consists only of conjugate planar ring structure with the π electron cloud berdelokalisasi. Chemistry is characterized by conjugated double bonds actually in the ring. Aromatic ring heterocyclic compounds can be simple if it contains non-carbon atoms. It may monocyclic such as benzene, naphthalene such bicyclic, or polycyclic like anthracene. Monocyclic aromatic ring is usually a simple five-membered ring, such pirola, or six-membered rings, such as pyridine. All aromatic compounds based on benzene, C6H6 which has six carbon atoms and each corner of the hexagon symbol has a carbon atom bound with hydrogen
Benzene and its derivatives classified in a number of aromatic compounds, is first classification solely based on the flavor of the part of the said compounds. Development of the next stage chemistry chemists realize that the classification should be based on the chemical structure and reactivity, and not on the basis of physical properties. Currently, the term aromatic is retained, but it refers to the fact that all the aromatic compounds of high and stable degree ketidakjenuhannya when dealing with the attacking reagent bonding pi (π). have the pi electrons in the cyclic arrangement of the 2p orbitals as 4n +2 (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, …). so if the bond does not form an aromatic ring. probably because the compound is not an established chain of benzene C or can also occur on the fault and the binding reaction.

By dhillakhairunnisaikbar

MID ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1

NAME : DHILLA KHAIRUNNISA IKBAR
NIM : RSA1C111015
CHEMISTRY OF PGMIPA BI

1. a) Explain how the concept of organic coumpounds from petroleum can be used as a fuel for vehicles such as car, motor bike , including aircraft
ANSWER : In my opinion, the concept of organic compounds can be used as a fuel is for the welfare of the earth. Petroleum and natural gas is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. Hydrocarbon component is the component most plentiful in the oil and natural gas. Natural gas consists of alkanes, ie methane, ethane, propane, and butane. In addition to alkanes there are also many other gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas wells also contain helium. The presence of oil and a wide range of dairy products have benefits that are very important in our daily lives, for example, fuel use vehicles such as cars, motorcycles, including aircraft. Without it possible without education, the economy, agriculture and other aspects will not be able to run smoothly.
Petroleum is usually located 3-4 km below sea level. Petroleum is obtained by making the well bore. Crude oil gained accommodated in tankers or piped into a tank station or oil refinery. Crude Oil (cude oil) black viscous liquid and smelled dreadful. Crude oil can not be used as fuel or for other purposes, but must be processed first. Crude oil contains about 500 types of hydrocarbons by the number of atoms C-1 to 50. Hydrocarbons boiling point increases with the number of C atoms inside the molecule. Therefore, the processing of petroleum through distillation storey, where crude oil is separated into groups (fractions) with similar boiling points.
As for the process of the oil is
1. Distillation
Distillation is the separation of petroleum fractions based on differences in their boiling points.
2. CRACKING
Cracking is the decomposition of hydrocarbon molecules are large molecules into smaller hydrocarbons
3. Reforming
Reforming is a change of molecular shape is not good quality petrol (straight carbon chain) into gasoline quality is better (branched carbon chain).
4. Alkylation and POLYMERIZATION
Alkylation is an increase in the number of atoms in the molecule into a longer molecule and branched. Polymerization is the process of incorporation of small molecules into large molecules.
5. Blending
Blending process is the addition of additive materials into petroleum fractions in order to improve the quality of the product.
b) explain it how the idea of chemical coumpounds from petroleum can be used to make clothing and plastic and material needs of other human lives .
ANSWER : Oil is a natural material with different types of chemical compounds, which can be used in a variety of industrial raw materials.
a. Board
Plastic is an elastic material, heat resistant, easy to set up, lighter than wood, and are not corroded by the moisture. Plastics other than it’s cheap, it also can be used as an insulator and easily colored. Building materials derived from hydrocarbons in general the form of plastic. Plastic base material similar to LPG, which is a polymer of propylene, are compounds olefin / alkenes of carbon chains C3. Of plastic material is then so assorted from roofs (plastic tiles), furniture, interior equipment, bumper cars, tables, chairs, dishes, etc..
• Clothing
Of hydrocarbon material that can be used for clothing is PTA (purified terephthalic acid), which is made of para-xylene in which the material is essentially kerosene (kerosene). Of kerosene is all the material formed into compound Aromat, the para-xylene.Para-xylene is then oxidized using air from a PTA PTA shaped like detergent powder is then reacted with methanol into polyester fibers. Fiber poly ester which is the synthetic yarn that looks like a thread. Almost all the uniforms we wear may be made of polyester. To facilitate their identification can be seen from the price. Price clothing made of synthetic polyester yarns are usually relatively cheaper than clothing made from raw cotton, silk or other natural fibers.
Subtlety material made from polyester fibers affected by additive substances (additives) in the process of making yarn (PTA when reacting with methanol).
• ART
For matters of art, especially painting, the main role of hydrocarbons exist in the ink / oil paint and solvent. Hydrocarbons are used for solvent paints are made of Low Aromatic White Spirit or LAWS mmerupakan solvent resulting from the Pertamina refinery in Plaju with a boiling point range between 145o C – 195o C. LAWS hidrokarbonyang form solvent compound is a mixture of paraffin, cycloparaffins, and aromatic hydrocarbons.
• AESTHETIC
hydrocarbon materials are also used for cosmetic aesthetic is a candle. For example lipstick, waxing (hair removal using a foot candle) or other material mixing cosmetic, pharmaceutical or shoe polish. Paraffin Wax is produced by Refineries in Indonesia Pertamina Balikpapan UP-V filtering through press. Qualifications PERTAMINA quality wax based quality associated with the melting point, color and oil content. Types of candles and purposes more widely.
2. Explain why the hydrocarbon asymetrical or chiral have a variety of benefit for human being . and describe how does it the chiral centers can be formed.
Answer : If there duah atoms bonded to the same carbon atom, the molecule will have a plane of symmetry (plane of symmetry). If you imagine cutting through the molecule, the right side will be the same with the left.
When four different atoms bonded to the atom. Not terdapatsimetri on molekul.Molekul that does not have a field called chiral symmetry. The carbon atoms in which four different atoms bonded core called chiral or asymmetric carbon atom.
The molecule on the left (which has a plane of symmetry) is called sebagaiakiral.
Only chiral molecules have optical isomers.
the chiral hydrocarbon molecules change shape when it will be changed also benefit.
the hydrocarbon molecules are chiral when benthic changing it will change again the benefits are one of the benefits of chiral compounds as drugs.

for the central carbon asymmetry A simple method for identifying the chiral molecules involves identifying known as asymmetric carbon center. This works great for chiral molecules,
but it is important to realize that it is not everything and there are some cases where it would not be appropriate / suitable. For example, some chiral molecules have an asymmetric carbon center, and several molecules have more than one chiral carbon centers are not asymmetric.
Typically, a compound will have optical isomers if there are four different substituents
attached to the carbon center (Figure 3.50). In this case, the mirror image is
nonsuperimposable and structure will be two configurations called isomers were then called enantiomers. Carbon center containing four different substituents is known as stereogenic or asymmetric center. A solution of each of the enantiomers or optical isomers able to rotate plane of polarized light. One enantiomer will rotate the plane of polarized light clockwise while the other (mirror image) will rotate counter-clockwise by the same amount. A mixture of two isomers (a racemate) will not rotate plane of polarized light at all. In all other respects, the two isomers are identical and therefore the physical and chemical properties can not be distinguished. Asymmetric centers in the molecule shown (Figure 3.51) has been identified with an asterisk. Structures that do not have a center of symmetry or achiral asymmetric and has no optical isomers. A structure can also have more than one asymmetric center.

3. When ethylene gas produced from a ripe fruit can be used to ripe other fruits that are still unripe. How do you idea when the gas is used as fuel gas like methane gas
Answer : I think ethylene gas can be used as fuel, the Ethylene Oxide, Ethylene oxide reacted with water to produce ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol is used as an anti-freeze and engine coolant could also be made in the basic fuel like other fuels may be with the addition of certain materials or the reaction.

4. Aromatic compounds are marked by ease of adjacent electrons conjugated. Please explain why an unsaturated compound which highly conjugated but is not aromatic.
Answer :
Aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of chemicals that are characterized by having a molecular structure called a benzene ring. The simplest aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene, chemical and hydrocarbon structure is lent its name to the benzene ring. Many toxic aromatic hydrocarbons, and they are unfortunately among the most widespread organic pollutants. Many toxic aromatic hydrocarbons, and they are unfortunately among the most widespread organic pollutants.
Aromatic compounds are derivatives of benzene. simple aromatic compounds, is an aromatic organic compound that consists only of conjugate planar ring structure with the π electron cloud berdelokalisasi. Chemistry is characterized by conjugated double bonds actually in the ring. Aromatic ring heterocyclic compounds can be simple if it contains non-carbon atoms. It may monocyclic such as benzene, naphthalene such bicyclic, or polycyclic like anthracene. Monocyclic aromatic ring is usually a simple five-membered ring, such pirola, or six-membered rings, such as pyridine. All aromatic compounds based on benzene, C6H6 which has six carbon atoms and each corner of the hexagon symbol has a carbon atom bound with hydrogen
Benzene and its derivatives classified in a number of aromatic compounds, is first classification solely based on the flavor of the part of the said compounds. Development of the next stage chemistry chemists realize that the classification should be based on the chemical structure and reactivity, and not on the basis of physical properties. Currently, the term aromatic is retained, but it refers to the fact that all the aromatic compounds of high and stable degree ketidakjenuhannya when dealing with the attacking reagent bonding pi (π). have the pi electrons in the cyclic arrangement of the 2p orbitals as 4n +2 (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, …). so if the bond does not form an aromatic ring. probably because the compound is not an established chain of benzene C or can also occur on the fault and the binding reaction.

By dhillakhairunnisaikbar

Acid Bases Organic

An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties. The most common organic acids are the carboxylic acids, whose acidity is associated with their carboxyl group –COOH. Sulfonic acids, containing the group –SO2OH, are relatively stronger acids. Alcohols, with –OH, can act as acids but they are usually very weak. The relative stability of the conjugate base of the acid determines its acidity. Other groups can also confer acidity, usually weakly: the thiol group –SH, the enol group, and the phenol group. In biological systems, organic compounds containing these groups are generally referred to as organic acids.

 

Characteristics

Organic acids are characterized by the presence of positively polarized hydrogen atom. There are two kinds of organic acids, the first of a hydrogen atom bonded to oxygen atoms, such as methyl alcohol and acetic acid. Second, the hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms in which the carbon atoms are bonded directly to the carbonyl group (C = O), such as acetone. In general, organic acids are weak acids and do not dissociate completely in water, whereas the strong mineral acids do. Lower molecular mass organic acids such as formic and lactic acids are miscible in water, but higher molecular mass organic acids, such as benzoic acid, are insoluble in molecular (neutral) form.On the other hand, most organic acids are very soluble in organic solvents. p-Toluenesulfonic acid is a comparatively strong acid used in organic chemistry often because it is able to dissolve in the organic reaction solvent.Exceptions to these solubility characteristics exist in the presence of other substituents that affect the polarity of the compound.
Applications

Simple organic acids like formic or acetic acids are used for oil and gas well stimulation treatments. These organic acids are much less reactive with metals than are strong mineral acids like hydrochloric acid (HCl) or mixtures of HCl and hydrofluoric acid (HF). For this reason, organic acids are used at high temperatures or when long contact times between acid and pipe are needed.The conjugate bases of organic acids such as citrate and lactate are often used in biologically-compatible buffer solutions.Citric and oxalic acids are used as rust removal. As acids, they can dissolve the iron oxides, but without damaging the base metal as do stronger mineral acids. In the dissociated form, they may be able to chelate the metal ions, helping to speed removal.Biological systems create many and more complex organic acids such as L-lactic, citric, and D-glucuronic acids that contain hydroxyl or carboxyl groups. Human blood and urine contain these plus organic acid degradation products of amino acids, neurotransmitters, and intestinal bacterial action on food components. Examples of these categories are alpha-ketoisocaproic, vanilmandelic, and D-lactic acids, derived from catabolism of L-leucine and epinephrine (adrenaline) by human tissues and catabolism of dietary carbohydrate by intestinal bacteria, respectively.

Organic base

Organic base is characterized by the presence of atoms with a lone pair of electrons that can bind protons. Yangmengandung compounds of nitrogen atom is an example of an organic base, but the oxygen-containing compounds can also bertindaksebagai base when reacted with a strong acid. It should be noted that compounds containing oxygen atoms can act as an acid or alkaline, depending on the environment.

 

 

 

An organic base is an organic compound which acts as a base. Organic bases are usually, but not always, proton acceptors. They usually contain nitrogen atoms, which can easily be protonated. Amines and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds are organic bases. Examples include:

* pyridine
* methyl amine
* imidazole
* benzimidazole
* histidine
* phosphazene bases
* Hydroxides of some organic cations

Factors affecting alkalinity

While all organic bases are considered to be weak, many factors can affect the alkalinity of the compounds. One such factor is the inductive effect. A simple explanation of the term would state that electropositive atoms (such as carbon groups) attached in close proximity to the potential proton acceptor have an “electron-releasing” effect, such that the positive charge acquired by the proton acceptor is distributed over other adjacent atoms in the chain. The converse is also possible as alleviation of alkalinity: electronegative atoms or species (such as fluorine or the nitro group) will have an “electron-withdrawal” effect and thereby reduce the basicity. To this end, trimethylamine is a more potent base than merely ammonia, due to the inductive effect of the methyl groups allowing the nitrogen atom to more readily accept a proton and become a cation being much greater than that of the hydrogen atoms.[citation needed] In guanidines, the protonated form (guanidinium) has three resonance structures, giving it increased stability and making guanadines stronger bases.

Phosphazene bases also contain phosphorus and are, in general, more alkaline than standard amines and nitrogen-based heterocyclics. Protonation takes place at the nitrogen atom, not the phosphorus atom to which the nitrogen is double-bonded.

By dhillakhairunnisaikbar

protein as a means of transportation

Proteins are complex organic compounds which are polymers of amino acid monomers are connected to each other by peptide bonds. Protein molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur and phosphorus. Some functions of proteins are:
Protein Function
1. Enzyme
2. Transport Proteins: Hemoglobin and Myoglobin
3. Regulatory Proteins: Hormones
4. Contractile Protein
5. Protein Structural
6. Protein Defense
7. Protein Nutrient and Storage
One of the functions that will be discussed in more focus is on the transport protein (protein transport).
Transport protein has the ability to bind to specific molecules and transporting various substances from one organ to other organs through the bloodstream. For example, hemoglobin, consisting of clusters of iron-containing compounds hame bound globin protein, functions as a carrier of oxygen in the blood of vertebrates; hemosianin, as an oxygen carrier in the blood of some kinds of invertebrates; serum albumin, fatty acid transporters in the blood; ceruloplasmin, copper ion transporters in the blood.
Transport protein is a protein that can bind and carry distinctive molecules or ions from one organ to another organ. Transport protein in the blood plasma bind and carry specific molecules or ions from one organ to another organ. An example is the transport protein myoglobin. Myoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein is relatively small (BM 16 700) found in muscle cells. Its function is to store and oxygen bound to increase oxygen transport to the mitochondria, which use oxygen for the oxidation of cell nutrients.
Another example is hemoglobin, which is a transport protein found in red blood cells. Hemoglobin can bind oxygen when the blood through the lungs. Oxygen was taken and released on peripheral tissues that can be used to oxidize nutrients (food) into energy. In blood plasma there is a lipoprotein that serves to transport lipids from the liver to the organ. Other transport proteins present in the cell membrane serves to bring some molecules such as glucose, amino acids and other nutrients through the membrane into the cell.
Hemoglobin molecule is a tetramer a2b2 consisting of 2 identical chains A and 2 B chains are identical. Subunits a and b of the structure and evolution connected to each other and to myoglobin, a monomeric binding oxygen in the muscles. The structure of hemoglobin (hemoglobin tetramer) is a spheroidal molecule with dimensions of 64x55x50 Armstrong. Two of his ab protomer connected symmetrically by two folds rotation. Hemoglobin compose 33% of the weight of the human body. Hemoglobin is one of the first protein molecular mass can be determined accurately, the first protein characterized by ultra centrifugation and associated with specific physiological functions (of the oxygen transport), and in sickle cell anemia is the first in demonstrating the mutation that causes a single amino acid change . Hemoglobin is not just a simple oxygen tank, but of a modern oxygen-carrying system that provides an accurate amount of oxygen into jarngan-network under any circumstances. Hemoglobin carries oxygen from the lungs, gills, or animal skin into capillaries that function in respiration. Very small organisms that do not need protein as it needs to be paid back respirasinya simple passive diffusion of oxygen throughout the body. However, because the rate of diffusion transport of substances varies inversely with the rank of the distance that must be taken, the rate of oxygen diffusion along the network thicker than 1mm is too slow to sustain life. Therefore, the evolution of large and complex organisms, such as annelids (eg earthworms), requires the development of an active circulation system carries oxygen and nutrients to the bloodstream for these organisms must have oxygen carriers such as hemoglobin because the solubility of oxygen in the blood plasma is too low to carry enough oxygen for metabolic needs.

By dhillakhairunnisaikbar

lipid of life

Lipids are defined as compounds that do not dissolve in water, which is extracted from living organisms using a weak solvent polarity solvents nonopolar. This definition is based on physical properties, in contrast to the definition of protein, carbohydrates and nucleic acids based on their chemical structure. The term lipid mencakupberbagai variety of compounds of different structure.
There are some functions of lipids include:
• As a structural constituent of cell membranes
In this case the lipid acts as a barrier to cells and regulate the flow of materials.
• As energy reserves
Lipids are stored as adipose tissue
• As the hormones and vitamins
Hormones regulate communication between cells, while vitamin helps the regulation of biological processes
Types of lipids

There are several types of lipids are:
• Fatty acids, composed of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids
• glycerides, consisting of neutral glycerides and fosfogliserida
• Lipid complex, consisting of lipoproteins and glycolipids
• Non-glycerides, comprising sfingolipid, steroids and night
Lipids in the human diet is the main triacylglycerol, sterols, and membrane phospholipids derived from animals and plants. process of forming lipid metabolism and lipid deposits degrade and produce the characteristic structure and function of lipids in certain tissues.
Many types of lipids that are amfifilik, meaning consists of two parts, namely a nonpolar hydrocarbon regions and polar or ionic regions on both. The term amfifilik amfifatik replaces the previously used term.
Lipids can be classified into two major parts:
Ø Lipid based on their classification:
1. Lipid simple: as esters. Fat and various alcohols, eg fat or oil and wax (wax)
2. Lipid complex (combined): as.lemak esters having other groups in addition to alcohol and as. fat, eg fosfolifid, glikolofid, and lipoprotein
3. Lipid derivatives: compounds produced by the hydrolysis of lipids, as.lemak eg, glycerol, fatty aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins and some hormones
Ø Lipid based chemical properties of lipids can also be divided into 2 groups:
1. Lipids that can be hydrolyzed, Contonya fats and oils
2. That can not be hydrolyzed lipids, sterols and terpenes Contonya
Lipids have important biological role or function in life, among which are the following:
1. As fuel
2. As the cell membrane forming materials
3. As an insulator (protective). For example, thermal and electrical insulation
Fatty acids are stored as triacylglycerol in adipose tissue is the main energy source for a variety of networks when the availability slukosa thinning. Stress, long practice, and famine caused depot lipid mobilization. Triacylglycerol hydrolyzed if the so-called hormone-sensitive lipase, and fatty acids are released into the circulation. Non-esterified fatty acid that binds to serum albumin, passing through the circulation into tissues. By binding to fatty acids, albumin facilitate their inclusion in the circulation and minimize reaction during pengakutan detergennya.
Fat oxidation occurs in three steps, called activation, tranfor into the mitochondria, and oxidation to acetyl-Co-A. In general, the influx of fatty acids into metabolic pathways preceded by conversion into derivatives of coenzyme A (CoASH). Original derivative is called alkanoyl-CoA or alkenoil-CoA, which is in the form of this fatty acid is said to tel; ah activated. Activation of fatty acid led to the formation of thioesters to fatty acids and CoA. This process simultaneously with the hydrolysis of ATP to AMP.
Fatty acids in nature can be divided into 2 groups:
1. Saturated fatty acids (saturated acid)
Example: as.palmitat, strearat acid, and capric acid
2. Unsaturated fatty acids (unsaturated acid)
Example: oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid
In addition to the above two categories, we found two other groups:
1. Branched fatty acids (branched chain acid)
2. Cyclic fatty acid (cyclic acid)
Fat has a very important function biologiyang, namely:
Ø fats in food, function:
1. Energy carriers
2. Mediator for vitamins that are fat soluble
3. The source for essential fatty acids
Ø fat in the body, function:
1. Largest energy reserves
2. Carbon source for a variety of synthesis that occurs in the body
3. Temperature and electrical insulator
4. Mechanical bearings

By dhillakhairunnisaikbar

ORGANIC COUMPOUND OF LIFE

Organic chemistry is the scientific study of branching chemistry on the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and synthesis of organic compounds. Organic compounds are constructed mainly by carbon and hydrogen, and may contain other elements such as nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, halogens and sulfur. Original definition of organic chemistry is derived from the misconception that all organic compounds must have come from living organisms, but it has been proved that there are some exceptions. In fact, life is also very dependent on inorganic chemistry, as an example, the enzyme is basing his work on transition metals such as iron and copper, as well as teeth and bone composition is a mixture of organic and inorganic senyama.
Organic compounds, which are compounds associated with life processes, is the subject of organic chemistry. Among the various types of organic compounds, four main categories were found in all living things: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

1. Carbohydrates (saccharides)
Almost all organisms use carbohydrates as an energy source. In addition, some carbohydrates into structural material. Carbohydrates are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with the general formula Cn (H2O) n. Seeing the empirical formula, the compound can be believed as “hydrates of carbon”, so-called carbohydrates. The empirical formula as it is not only owned by carbohydrates but also by hydrocarbons such as acetic acid. Therefore, a compound including carbohydrates not only in terms of the empirical formula, but the most important is the formula structure. From the structural formula will be seen that there are important functional groups present on the carbohydrate molecules of carbonyl groups (aldehydes and ketones). Functional groups that determine the nature of the compound. Based on the existing cluster in carbohydrate molecules, the compounds are defined as polihidroksialdehida and polihidroksiketon. Saccharide term itself comes from the Latin and refers to the sweetness of simple carbohydrates compounds.
Carbohydrates ter for the four major groups, namely:

a. Monosaccharide
Monosaccharides (CnH2nOnMonosakarida (from Greek mono: one, sacchar: sugar) is a carbohydrate compound in the simplest form of sugar). Monosaccharides are classified by the number of carbon atoms they contain (trioses, tetrosa, pentose, hexose).
• trioses
Trioses is a monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms. Example: The glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone
• Tertrosa
Tertrosa is a monosaccharide containing 4 carbon atoms. Example: Erutrulose
• pentose
Containing 5 carbon atoms. in the cells contained in the Nucleic Acid (DNA, RNA) and several coenzymes. Example: ribose, and deoxyribose
• hexose
Containing 6 carbon atoms. Example: glucose, fructose, and galactose.

b. Disaccharide
Disaccharide is a carbohydrate molecule composed of two monosaccharides, linked by glycoside bonds. Glycoside bond formed between atoms C 1 a monosaccharide O atom of OH with other monosaccharides. 1 mole of disaccharide hydrolysis will produce 2 moles of monosaccharide.
1. Maltose
Maltose is a disaccharide and is the result of the partial hydrolysis of starch (starch). Maltose molecules composed of α-D-glucose and β-D-glucose.
2. Sucrose
Sucrose found in sugar cane and sugar beet. In everyday life known as table sugar sucrose. Sucrose is composed of glucose and fructose molecules are linked by 1,2-α bonds. Sucrose hydrolyzed by the enzyme invertase produces α-D-glucose and β-D-fructose. Sugar mixture is called inversion sugar, sweeter than sucrose.
3. Lactose
Lactose is the major component found in mother’s milk and cow’s milk. Lactose is composed
of molecule β-D-galactose and α-D-glucose linked by bonds 1.4 ‘-β.

c. Oligosaccharide
Oligosaccharide is a combination of monosaccharide molecules whose numbers between 2 (two) to 8 (eight) monosaccharide molecules. So that oligosaccharide may be a disaccharide, trisakarida and others.

d. Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides, containing many monosaccharide units linked by glycoside bonds. Complete hydrolysis of polysaccharides will produce monosaccharides.
Polysaccharides consist of:
Homopolisakarida; formed by the same monosaccharides, such as starch and glycogen molecules. Reserve food starch in plant cells, while glycogen reserves in animal cells.
Starch; composed of amylose and amylopectin
Glycogen; is a polymer of glucose molecules. In animal cells are very few in number. But in molluscs, liver, muscle glycogen contains many.
Inulin; substances are abundant in certain plant root cells, is classified polosakarida hydrolyzed fructose produces fructose.
Cellulose; is a polymer of sellobiosa with chemical formula (C12H22O11). Abundant cellulose in the cell walls of higher plants that serve as a protective cell.

2. Lipid
Lipids are organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Lipids can be extracted from animal tissue and fat solvent memalui tumbuham. These fatty acids have two areas:
a. hydrocarbon chain; hydrophobic insoluble in water and less reactive;
b. carboxylic acid group; mengion in solution. Dissolved in water, it reacts
form esters.
A glycerol molecule contains three hydroxyl (OH-). A long-chain fatty acids have a carbon atom (from 4 to 24) by having a carboxyl (-COOH) at one end. Fatty acids in the fat attached to the glycerol molecule by a process that involves the removal of water.
A fat molecule molecule constructed by combining glycerol with three fatty acid molecules. In human health, the consumption of unsaturated fats are preferable to saturated fat consumption.

3. Protein
Protein is one of the compounds of the most complex of all organic compounds, which are composed of amino acids that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms, and sometimes sulfur and phosphorus. Protein plays an important role in the structure and function of all living cells and viruses. Protein molecules are larger than carbohydrates and lipids. Unit building blocks of protein are amino acids. Certain amino acids also have atomic sulfur, phosphorus, or other elements such as iron or copper.
Role of protein:
• as a catalyst for many chemical reactions,
• provide structural rigidity,
• monitor the permeability of the cell membrane,
• regulate the levels of metabolites necessary
• causing movement, and
• monitor the activity of genes
Protein is very important for living things, because all the enzymes involved in metabolic reactions are proteins but not all proteins are enzymes

4. Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids are macromolecules that holds a very important role in the life of the organism due to the genetic information stored in it. . Nucleic acids are also called polynucleotide as a molecule composed of nucleotides as a monomer. Each nucleotide has a structure consisting of a phosphate group, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base or nucleotide bases (base N).
There are two kinds of nucleic acids, the deoxyribonucleic acid or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid or ribonucleic acid (RNA). Judging from its structure, the difference between the two kinds of nucleic acids is mainly located in the sugar component pentosanya. Pentosanya sugar in RNA is ribose, whereas in DNA sugar pentosanya having lost one O atom at position C number 2 ‘so called sugar 2’-deoxyribose.
Other structural differences between DNA and RNA is in its base N. Tongue N, both the DNA and the RNA, has a structure in the form of heterocyclic aromatic ring (containing C and N) and can be grouped into two categories, namely purine and pyrimidine. Purine bases have two rings (bicyclic), whereas the pyrimidine bases have only one ring (monocyclic).

The function of nucleic acids are:
§ Controlling biosynthetic activity in cells
§ Bringing genetic information.

By dhillakhairunnisaikbar

Aromatic hydrocarbons

Aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of chemicals that are characterized by having a molecular structure called a benzene ring. The simplest aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene, chemical and hydrocarbon structure is lent its name to the benzene ring. Many toxic aromatic hydrocarbons, and they are unfortunately among the most widespread organic pollutants. Many toxic aromatic hydrocarbons, and they are unfortunately among the most widespread organic pollutants.
Aromatic compounds are derivatives of benzene. simple aromatic compounds, is an aromatic organic compound that consists only of conjugate planar ring structure with the π electron cloud berdelokalisasi. Chemistry is characterized by conjugated double bonds actually in the ring. Aromatic ring heterocyclic compounds can be simple if it contains non-carbon atoms. It may monocyclic such as benzene, naphthalene such bicyclic, or polycyclic like anthracene. Monocyclic aromatic ring is usually a simple five-membered ring, such pirola, or six-membered rings, such as pyridine. All aromatic compounds based on benzene, C6H6 which has six carbon atoms and each corner of the hexagon symbol has a carbon atom bound with hydrogen
Benzene and its derivatives classified in a number of aromatic compounds, is first classification solely based on the flavor of the part of the said compounds. Development of the next stage chemistry chemists realize that the classification should be based on the chemical structure and reactivity, and not on the basis of physical properties. Currently, the term aromatic is retained, but it refers to the fact that all the aromatic compounds of high and stable degree ketidakjenuhannya when dealing with the attacking reagent bonding pi (π).

A. AROMATIC COMPOUNDS
Benzene is a member of a large group of aromatic compounds, ie compounds sufficiently stabilized by pi-electron delocalization. Resonance energy an aromatic compound is helping gained stability.
The easiest way to determine whether a compound is aromatic is to determine the position of the absorption in mspektrum number of protons bound to the atom-atom ring. Proton-bound outward terperisai aromatic rings are very strong and absorbs far down-field than most protons, usually more than 7 ppm.
(Fessenden and Fessenden .454-455: 1982).

Aromaticity
Aromaticity is a chemical property in which a conjugated ring bond consists of unsaturated bonds, a couple, or an empty orbit showed stronger stability than the stability of the system consists only of conjugation. Aromaticity can also be considered a manifestation of cyclic delocalization and resonance.
Terms Aromaticity
1. A molecule must be cyclic.
2. Each atom in the ring must have π orbital, to form conjugates.
3. Molecules have planar.
4. The number π electrons of the molecule must be odd and satisfy Hückel rule: (4n +2) elektronπ.

B. Aromatic compounds and its structure
Which includes aromatic compounds is
• benzene compounds
• The chemical compound with chemical properties such as benzene

1. Benzene
Benzene and benzene derivative compounds first synthesized by Michael Faraday in 1825, from which the gas is used as fuel for lamps penerang.Sepuluh years later it was discovered that benzene has the molecular formula C6H6 thus concluded that benzene has a double bond more than alkenes.
Of the oily residue is buried in the gas mains in London. Currently, the main source of benzene, substituted benzene and aromatic compounds are petroleum: formerly of nearly 90% coal tar compounds active ingredients are aromatic compounds: benzene core has the formula.
a. Structure of Benzene
The double bond in benzene is different from the alkene double bond. The double bond in alkenes can undergo addition reactions, whereas the double bond in benzene can not you get an addition, but benzene can react substitution. Example:
Addition reaction: C2H4 + Cl2 -> C2H4Cl2
Substitution reaction: C6H6 + Cl2 -> C6H5Cl + HCl
Kekulé describe the structure of benzene by carbon atoms linked to one another to form a ring.

Orbital benzene
Each carbon atom in benzene tying 3 others using sp2 hybridized orbital forming a planar molecule.
Benzene is a symmetrical molecule, hexagonal shape with a bond angle 120o
Each C atom has four orbital into the p orbitals. P orbitals overlap will experience suh (overlapping) to form a cloud of electrons as the source of electrons.

C. AROMATIC COMPOUNDS heterocyclic
According to Erich Hückel, a compound that contains five or six-membered ring is aromatic if:
• all the constituent atoms lie in a flat (planar)
• every atom that form a ring having a 2p orbital
• have the pi electrons in the cyclic arrangement of the 2p orbitals as 4n +2 (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, …)
In addition to benzene and its derivatives, there are several other types of compounds exhibit aromatic properties, which have high unsaturation and showed no reactions like alkenes. Benzene homosiklik included in the class of compounds, ie compounds that have only one type of atom in the ring system. There are heterocyclic compounds, are compounds that have more than one type of atom in the ring system, the ring is composed of one or more atoms that are not carbon atoms. For example, pyridine and pirimidina are aromatic compounds such as benzene. In pyridine one CH unit of benzene is replaced by a nitrogen atom sp2 hybridise, and in pirimidina two CH units replaced by nitrogen atoms are sp2 hybridise.
Membered heterocyclic compounds of five such as furan, thiophene, pyrrole, and imidazole also includes aromatic compounds.

D. TERMS OF AROMATIC COMPOUNDS
Aromatics Requirements:
1. Molecules have cyclic and flat.
2. have p orbitals perpendicular to the ring plane (pi electron delocalization allow).
3. have p orbitals perpendicular to the ring plane (pi electron delocalization allow)
8 siklooktatetraena not aromatic pi electrons.
(Fessenden and Fessenden .463-464: 1982).
A. Hückel rule
In the year 1931 a German chemist Erich Hückel, suggested that an aromatic compound to be flat, monocyclic (one ring) needs to have as many pi elketron 4N + 2, where n is an integer sebuahn. According to the Hückel rule, a ring with pi electrons as 2,6,10 or 14 can be aromatic, but the ring with 8 or 12 pi electrons, can not be. Siklooktatetraena (with 8 electrons pi) does not comply with Hückel rule for aromaticity.

Aromatic compounds must meet the following criteria:
– Cyclical
– Contains a delocalized p electron clouds below and above the plane of the molecule
– Double bonds alternate with single bonds
– Have a total number of 4N +2 p electrons, where n must bulisal numbers: if the number of electrons in a ring of a cyclic p = 12, then n = 2.5 then instead of aromatic compounds

By dhillakhairunnisaikbar

Hydrocarbon Derivatives

Hydrocarbon Derivatives
-Organic compounds are divided into two main classes: hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives
-Hydrocarbon derivatives are molecular compounds of carbon and at least one other element that is not hydrogen
-Organic halides are organic compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by halogen atoms
-Common organic halides include freons (chlorofluorocarbons) and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene)
-Naming halides uses the same format as branched-chain hydrocarbons
-The branch is named by shortening the halogen name to fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, or iodo-
-In drawing organic halides using IUPAC names, draw the parent chain and add branches at locations specified in the name
eg.

Cl Cl
| |
H-C-C-H
| |
H H

1,2-dichloroethane

-Organic halides react fast which is explained from the idea that no strong covalent bond is broken – the electron rearrangement does not involve separation of the carbon atoms
-Addition of halogens could be added to alkynes which results in alkenes or alkanes
-By adding halogens to alkenes, the product could undergo another addition step, by adding halogens to the parent chain, the double bond has to become a single bond in order to accommodate the halogens
eg.

Br Br Br Br
| | | |
H-C=C-H + Br-Br => H-C-C-H
| |
Br Br

-By adding hydrogen halides to unsaturated compounds will produce isomers

H H H H H H H H H
| | | | | | | | |
H-C=C-C-H + H-Cl => H-C-C-C-H OR H-C-C-C-H
| | | | | | |
H Cl H H HCl H

-Substitution reaction is a reaction that involves the breaking of a carbon-hydrogen bond in an alkane or aromatic ring and the replacement of the hydrogen atom with another atom or group of atoms
-With light energy it enables the substitution reaction to move at a noticeable rate eg. C3H8 + BR2 + light => C3H7Br + HBR
-Through substitution reaction, in order to name the reaction product, just indicate the location number of the replacement, followed by the halogen prefix (eg. Bromo-) and then state the type of parent chain. Also indicate the second product created from substitution reaction (hydrogen bromide) eg. propane + bromine => 1-bromopropane + hydrogen bromide
-Elimination is an organic reaction in which an alkyl halide reacts with hydroxide ion to produce an alkene by removing a hydrogen and halide ion from the molecule

H H H H H H
| | | | | |
H-C-C-C-H + OH => H-C=C-C-H + H-O + Br
| | | | |
H BrH H H

-Alcohols have properties that can be explained by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a hydrocarbon chain
-Short-chain alcohols are very soluble in water because they form hydrogen bonds with water molecules
-Alcohols are used as solvents in organic reactions because they are effective for both polar and non-polar compounds
-To name alcohols, the –e is dropped from the end of the alkane name and is replaced with –ol eg. Methane => methanol
-Methanol is also called wood alcohol because it was once made by heating wood shavings in the absence of air
-These days, methanol is prepared by combining carbon monoxide and hydrogen at high temperatures and pressure with the use of a catalyst
-Methanol, however, is poisonous to humans. Consuming a small amount could cause blindness or death
-When naming alcohols with more than two carbon atoms, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated
-Alcohols that contain more than one hydroxyl group are called polyalcohols, their names indicate the positions of the hydroxyl groups eg. 1,2-ethanediol
-Alcohols undergo elimination reactions to produce alkenes through being catalyzed by concentrated sulfuric acid, which removes or eliminates a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group

H H H H
| | | |
H-C-C-H + acid => H-C=C-H + H-O
| | |
H OH H

ethanol + acid => ethene + water

-Ethers is a family of organic compounds that contain an oxygen atom bonded between two hydrocarbon groups, and have the general formula R1-O-R2
-To name ethers add oxy to the prefix for the smaller hydrocarbon group and join it to the alkane name of the larger hydrocarbon group
eg.

CH3-O-C2H5

methoxyethane

-Ethers have low solubility in water, low boiling points, and have no evidence of hydrogen bonding
-Ethers undergo chemical change only when treated with powerful reagents under vigorous conditions
-Ethers are formed by the condensation reaction of alcohols
-Condensation reaction is the joining of two molecules and the elimination of a small molecule, usually water
-The carbonyl functional group, -CO-, consists of a carbon atom with a double covalent bond to an oxygen atom
-Aldehydes has the carbonyl group on the terminal carbon atom of a chain
-To name aldehydes, replace the final –e of the name of the corresponding alkane with the suffix –al
-Small aldehyde molecules have sharp, irritating odors whereas larger molecules have flowery odors and is used to make perfumes
-A ketone has the carbonyl group present anywhere in a carbon chain except at the end of the chain
-The difference in position of the carbonyl group affects the chemical reactivity, and enables us to distinguish aldehydes from ketones empirically
-To name ketones, replace the –e ending of the name of the corresponding alkane with –one
-The simplest ketone is acetone (propanone), CH3COCH3
-The family of organic compounds, carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl functional group, -COOH, which includes both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups
-Carboxylic acids are found in citrus fruits, and other foods with properties of having a sour taste
-Carboxylic acids also have distinctive odors (like sweat from a person’s feet)
-The molecules of carboxylic acids are polar and form hydrogen bonds both with each other and with water molecules
-Carboxylic acids acid properties, so a litmus test can separate these compounds from other hydrocarbon derivatives
-To name carboxylic acids, replace the –e ending of the alkane name with –oic, followed by the word “acid”
-Methanoic acid, HCOOH, is the first member of the carboxylic acid family
-Some acids contain two or three carbonyl groups such as oxalic acid, and citric acid

COOH CH2-COOH
| |
COOH HO-C-COOH
|
CH2-COOH

oxalic acid citric acid

-When carboxylic acids undergo a condensation reaction, in which a carboxylic acid combines with another reactant, it forms two products – an organic compound and water
-Esterification is the condensation reaction in which a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol to produce ester and water
-carboxylic acid + alcohol => ester + water
-The ester functional group is similar to that of an acid, except that the hydrogen atom of the carboxyl group is replaced by a hydrocarbon branch
-Esters are responsible for the odors of fruits and flowers and are also added to foods for aroma and taste
-To name an ester, determine name of the alkyl group from the alcohol used in the esterification reaction
-Next change the ending of the acid name from “–oic acid” to “–oate”
-ethanoic acid + methanol => methyl ethanoate + water
-Artificial flavorings are made by mixing synthetic esters to give similar odors of the natural substance
-An amide consists of a carboxyl group bonded to a nitrogen atom
-Amides could be formed in condensation reactions
-Amides occur in proteins, the large molecules found in all living organisms
-Peptide bonds is the joining of amino acids together in proteins
-To name amides, have the name of the alkane with the same number of carbon atoms, with the final –e replaced by the suffix –amide
-Change the suffix of the carboxylic acid from “–oic acid” to –amide to have the same name results eg. ethanamide
-Amines consist of one or more hydrocarbon groups bonded to a nitrogen atom
-Through X-Ray diffraction reveals that the amine functional group is a nitrogen atom bonded by single covalent bonds to one, two, or three carbon atoms
-Amines are polar substances that re extremely soluble in water as they form strong hydrogen bonds both to each other and to water
-Amines have peculiar, horrible odors (eg. smell of rotting fish)
-The name of amines include the names of the alkyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom, followed by the suffix –amine eg. methylamine
-Amines with one, two, or three hydrocarbon groups attached to the central nitrogen atom are referred to as primary, secondary, and tertiary
-Primary amines is when a hydrogen atom attached to the nitrogen atom is replaced by a hydrocarbon group
-Secondary amines are when two hydrocarbon groups replaces the hydrogen atoms and tertiary amines replaces all of the hydrogen atoms with hydrocarbon groups
-Amines are used in the synthesis of medicines
-A group of amines found in many plants are called alkaloids
-Many alkaloids influence the function of the central nervous systems of animals
-Substitution – alkane/aromatic + halogen + light => organic halide + hydrogen halide
-Elimination – alkyl halide + OH => alkene + water |+ water + halide ion
-Elimination – alcohol + acid => alkene + water

By dhillakhairunnisaikbar

PETROLEUM

PETROLEUM
Petroleum is a mixture of organic compounds containing just two elements: carbon and hydrogen. CH4 or methane, the main ingredient of natural gas, has one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms in each molecule. petroleum is also dubbed as the black gold, the liquid is thick, dark brown or greenish flammable, and are in the upper layers of the few areas in the earth’s crust. Petroleum is composed of a complex mixture of various hydrocarbons, which largely consists of a series of alkanes but vary in appearance, composition, and purity. the oil and natural gas we use today are the remains of microscopic animals and plants–zooplankton and phytoplankton–that floated on the surface of lakes and seas millions of years ago. The plankton died and drifted downward, mixing with sediments of mud and silt. As the centuries passed, layers of sediment covered the decaying animals and plants, burying them deeper and deeper. The pressure and temperature rose, transforming the plankton into hydrocarbons–the compoounds of hydrogen and carbon we call petroleum. Petroleum naturally seeps to the Earth’s surface along fault lines and cracks in rocks, where it gathers in pools as tar, asphalt or bitumen. From this property it gets its name: the Latin petra, meaning “rock,” and oleum, meaning “oil.”Natural gas emerges from the Earth as a colorless, odorless vapor (a chemical called mercaptan provides its characteristic scent). Crude oil ranges in color from almost clear to green, amber, brown or black. It may flow like water or creep like molasses. It is described as “sweet” or “sour depending on the presence or absence of sulfur and other impurities.
Stages burial natural materials undergo chemical changes three times as follows:
a. Diagenesis
This period is not mature zone and cracking occur nondescript (10%), which is divided into three parts, namely:
1) Early diagenesis, ie the transition from a stable compound at the surface of the earth, into compounds that are stable at depths of thousands of meters with temperatures around 40-42oC. At this time the formation of kerogen (phases of the petroleum that is insoluble in organic solvents and inorganic).
2) mid diagenesis, a process of aromatization (long-chain compounds forming aromatic compounds, circumference and has a bond with delocalized electrons).
3) late diagenesis, a process that occurs pengkhelatan by metal organic compounds formed in the past.
Formation of petroleum occurs in late diagenesis and can be known based on the results of exploration.

b. Katagenesis
Katagenesis is oil and wet gas zone. At this time striking cracking occurs, where the chemical changes caused by temperature and depth pendaman (burial), causing thermal decomposition of kerogen.

c. Metagenesis
At this stage occur during thermal destruction of the character of the compound (liquid) into a residue (solid), resulting in organic compounds into compounds that lack hydrogen, and the material to be of no value or worth of the compounds of carbon material (graphite, diamond).
COMPOSITION OF PETROLEUM

Petroleum is a complex mixture. Petroleum consists of hydrocarbons (98%), sulfur (1-3%), Nitrogen (<1%), oxygen (<1%), metals or minerals (<1%), salt (<1%). Hydrocarbons in petroleum dominated by Alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic.
OIL PROCESSING

The treatment process includes four stages of petroleum.
Exploration – Exploitation – Separation (primary process) – Changing (secondary process).

 EXPLORATION
Mapping areas that have oil reserves. Done with topographic mapping, rock and soil research around the area is estimated to have reserves of petroleum, seismic activity. Seismic activity is the manufacture of small earthquakes on the ocean floor that could lead geleombang that bounced off the surface of the earth that contain oil.

 EXPLOITATION
The process of taking oil from the oil resources. Making process by drilling into the oil layer. Finally out of crude oil. Crude oil could not be utilized.

 SEPARATION (PRIMARY PROCESS)
This process is done denag distillation steps. This process is used to separate the hydrocarbon chain lengths and that have different boiling points.

The process begins by heating the oil in the heater. Components that have a higher boiling point and will remain liquid down to the bottom plate on the heater. While the low boiling point of water vapor and will be located on top of the heater plate.
CHANGES (SECONDARY PROCESS)
This process is done to change the fraction to a fraction of the desired one. Fractional change can be done with multiple processes.

• cracking
The molecule is broken down into molecules – small molecules. Example: change of lubricating oil fractions into gasoline fractions.
• rearrangements
Changes in straight chains into branched chain. Example: changes in n-octane into isooctane.
• alkylation
Changes of small molecules into large molecules. Example: change of butene to propene + heptane.
• COOKING
Changes in the fraction of a fraction of the gas residue.

OIL PROCESSING RESULTS

o LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas).
Merupakancampuran LPG hydrocarbons from the gas fraction. Used as a household fuel.

o Gasoline
Is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from petrol fractions. Petrol or gasoline is needed community. Pursuant to its function as an engine fuel bemotor. Quality is determined by the octane number of gasoline. The higher the quality the higher the octane number of gasoline. Octane number can be formulated:

Octane Numbers = (% isooctane X 100) + (% n – heptane X 100)

o kerosene
Is a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds are colorless but highly flammable. Kerosene from kerosene fractions. Kerosene is used for fuel oil burner. Kerosene-type jet fuel is being used to fuel airplanes.

o Solar
Is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from gas oil fractions. Regular diesel used to fuel diesel engines.

o Lubricants
Is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from lubricating oil fraction. Lubricants are used to lubricate the engine to prevent friction and smooth working machine components.

o Asphalt
Is a mixture of compounds derived from petroleum bitumen fraction. Asphalt is used in the hardening process.

By dhillakhairunnisaikbar

why the carbon atom can form 1,2 and 3 bonds?

Why Carbon Can Form Chain 1, 2, 3
One of the privileges of carbon that is not owned by the other elements is their ability to form chains of carbon atoms, which we hereafter refer to as the carbon chain.
Carbon chains may be either a single bond, double bond, or a triple bond. Forms of carbon chains themselves are very varied, there is a straight (unbranched), there is a branching, there are open, and there is a closed (circular).
Compounds with an open chain compounds called aliphatic compounds while closed or circular chain called cyclic compounds. The compounds are all carbon bond is a single bond, – C – C – called unsaturated carbon compounds, while having a carbon-carbon double bond, – C – C -, or triple – C = C -, called unsaturated carbon compounds.
Cyclic compounds having conjugated bonds, the carbon-carbon bond alternating single and dual, are called aromatic compounds. All cyclic compounds that are not included aromatic compounds are called alicyclic compounds, (the word comes from the word ali alicyclic and cyclic). These compounds are called alicyclic compound because it has a circular shape, but its properties resemble aliphatic compounds.

Why carbon can form so many compounds, with very varied types? Why is this not happening in the adjacent element or elements are classified with the carbon in the periodic table? BC has the electron configuration of atoms 2 4. The four valence electrons distributed on the four C atoms in a symmetrical position. The ability to bind carbon atoms and follow the octet rule is different from other atoms, even within a single class. For example, boron and nitrogen atoms. Electron configuration of two atoms is J3: 2 3 and _n: 2 5. Boron atom has three valence electrons so that when the covalent bonds, resulting compounds do not follow the octet Kaidan.
What about silicon? The silicon atom has an electron configuration 2 8 4. The silicon atom has four valence electrons with the carbon atom. The four electrons in the silicon atom is distributed on four sides symmetrically. Consider the Lewis structure of the following compound?

Note the Lewis structure and bonding in compounds SiH4 and SiO,. Lewis Structure and bonding in compounds such as CH4 and CO,. So, what are the differences?
Valence electrons in a silicon atom is located on the third skin, while the valence electrons in the carbon atom located on a second skin. Thus the Si atom radius greater than the radius of the atom C. Thus, the bonding Si – H to the compound anyway ^ weaker than the C – H in the compound CH4.

The carbon atom has four valence electrons with the atomic radii price the smallest of the atomic radius of other elements in the group IVA. It facilitates the C atom to form covalent bonds with other atoms, especially with atomic H, O, N, and halogen atoms (F, Cl, Br, and I). Covalent bonds are formed to meet the octet rule. The carbon atom can form up to four covalent bonds. Covalent bond formed by atoms C is more powerful than other covalent bonds, so that the carbon compounds are stable.

By dhillakhairunnisaikbar