Hydrocarbons are the most simple carbon compounds. From the name, hydrocarbon compounds are carbon compounds that are composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms. In everyday life we encounter many hydrocarbon compounds, such as kerosene, gasoline, natural gas, plastics and others.
Reactions of hydrocarbons in general is breaking and formation of covalent bonds. There are several types of hydrocarbon reactions, including the reaction of substitution, addition, oxidation and elimination.
• The substitution reaction
In substitution reactions, atom or group of atoms contained in a molecule is replaced by another atom or group of atoms. Substitution reactions generally occur in compound saturated (all carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds), but with certain conditions can also occur in unsaturated compounds.
Halogenated hydrocarbons (replacement of H by halogen atoms)
• Addition reactions
Addition reaction occurs in compounds having a double bond or a triple, senyaw alkyne or alkene compounds, including carbon bonds with other atoms,
In addition reactions, molecular compounds that have double bonds absorbing atom or group of atoms that bond turn into single bonds.
For alkene or alkyne, when the number of H atoms in the two different atoms C double bond, then the direction is determined by the rules of Markovnikov addition, the H atom will be bound to the carbon with more H atom is (“the rich get richer”).
• Elimination reactions
In elimination reactions, the compound binds to a single molecule transformed into a compound binds to duplicate by removing small molecules. Thus, elimination is the opposite of addition.
Elimination of water (dehydration) of alcohol. When heated with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature of about 1800C, alcohol can dehydrate to form alkenes.
• Oxidation reaction
If the alkane compound burnt using oxygen, the resulting compound is carbon dioxide and water. The reaction is known as oxidation or burning. For example:
C2H6 + 3,5 O2————–> 2CO2 + 3H2O
Hydrocarbons and benefits
Hydrocarbons are one of the natural resources that have a role to enhance progress. Benefits of hydrocarbons is a lot, but unfortunately too many negative effects. Until now there has been no penyelesaiaan other than drill a well to ascertain whether the presence of hydrocarbon underground.
hydrocarbons are carbon compounds that are formed by the elements carbon and hydrogen elements and grouped into two categories, namely aliphatic hydrocarbons including alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons including benzene and its compounds.
All fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) are the main source of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons (oil and gas) is used as the majority of the fuel to generate energy and to heat the room. Petroleum refinery produces gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, lubricating oils, waxes, and asphalt. Relatively small (4%) the use of petroleum as raw material for the chemical industry that produce essential materials for everyday life, such as plastics, textiles, and pharmaceuticals.
Hydrocarbon derivative compounds have very much at all, and virtually all carbon compounds or organic compounds are compounds derived hydrocarbons as the main constituent elements are hydrogen and carbon. Compounds derived hydrocarbons have so many uses and covers all areas of life. The multiple use of compounds derived hydrocarbons, are as follows.
Some chemicals consisting only of carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbons). Hydrocarbons are used in industry, especially in the petroleum and coal tar. Chemical energy stored in hydrocarbon constituent elements are carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons gain energy from the sun when plants use sunlight during photosynthesis to produce glucose (food).
Glucose, the simplest carbohydrates in the bloodstream making available to all body cells. The body’s cells to absorb glucose. Sugar by the cells is then oxidized (burned) with the help of the oxygen we breathe into energy and CO2 gas in the form of respiration (breathing). The energy generated and not used will be stored under the skin in the form of fat tissue.
Compounds derived hi-drokarbon a role in the field of clothing, such as cotton, wool (a protein), silk (protein), nylon (polymer), and synthetic fibers.
Field board, hydrocarbons derived compounds that play a role, such as cellulose, wood, lignin, and polymers.
Petroleum hydrocarbons are compounds which a commodity trading is very important to the world because oil is one of the most important sources of energy today. Countries in the world oil producers to form interstate organizations of the oil producers called OPEC (Organization of Petrolleum Exporting Country).
Petroleum distillates produced many hydrocarbon compounds is essential for human life, such as gasoline, petroleum ether (kerosene), LPG, lubricating oils, waxes, and asphalt.
Arts and Aesthetics
In the field of art, hydrocarbons are often used, among others, wax (wax) to coat the sculptures to appear more shiny. There’s even an artist who makes sculptures out of wax candles by compressing large in size then sculpted or carved according the wishes of the artist.
There was also a coloring art, both on fabric and other objects using chemical compounds. The ingredients are coated with wax will look more appealing and in addition it will also avoid the water because the water can not react with the wax because of differences in polarity.