Petroleum is a mixture of organic compounds containing just two elements: carbon and hydrogen. CH4 or methane, the main ingredient of natural gas, has one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms in each molecule. petroleum is also dubbed as the black gold, the liquid is thick, dark brown or greenish flammable, and are in the upper layers of the few areas in the earth’s crust. Petroleum is composed of a complex mixture of various hydrocarbons, which largely consists of a series of alkanes but vary in appearance, composition, and purity. the oil and natural gas we use today are the remains of microscopic animals and plants–zooplankton and phytoplankton–that floated on the surface of lakes and seas millions of years ago. The plankton died and drifted downward, mixing with sediments of mud and silt. As the centuries passed, layers of sediment covered the decaying animals and plants, burying them deeper and deeper. The pressure and temperature rose, transforming the plankton into hydrocarbons–the compoounds of hydrogen and carbon we call petroleum. Petroleum naturally seeps to the Earth’s surface along fault lines and cracks in rocks, where it gathers in pools as tar, asphalt or bitumen. From this property it gets its name: the Latin petra, meaning “rock,” and oleum, meaning “oil.”Natural gas emerges from the Earth as a colorless, odorless vapor (a chemical called mercaptan provides its characteristic scent). Crude oil ranges in color from almost clear to green, amber, brown or black. It may flow like water or creep like molasses. It is described as “sweet” or “sour depending on the presence or absence of sulfur and other impurities.
Stages burial natural materials undergo chemical changes three times as follows:
This period is not mature zone and cracking occur nondescript (10%), which is divided into three parts, namely:
1) Early diagenesis, ie the transition from a stable compound at the surface of the earth, into compounds that are stable at depths of thousands of meters with temperatures around 40-42oC. At this time the formation of kerogen (phases of the petroleum that is insoluble in organic solvents and inorganic).
2) mid diagenesis, a process of aromatization (long-chain compounds forming aromatic compounds, circumference and has a bond with delocalized electrons).
3) late diagenesis, a process that occurs pengkhelatan by metal organic compounds formed in the past.
Formation of petroleum occurs in late diagenesis and can be known based on the results of exploration.
Katagenesis is oil and wet gas zone. At this time striking cracking occurs, where the chemical changes caused by temperature and depth pendaman (burial), causing thermal decomposition of kerogen.
At this stage occur during thermal destruction of the character of the compound (liquid) into a residue (solid), resulting in organic compounds into compounds that lack hydrogen, and the material to be of no value or worth of the compounds of carbon material (graphite, diamond).
COMPOSITION OF PETROLEUM
Petroleum is a complex mixture. Petroleum consists of hydrocarbons (98%), sulfur (1-3%), Nitrogen (<1%), oxygen (<1%), metals or minerals (<1%), salt (<1%). Hydrocarbons in petroleum dominated by Alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic.
The treatment process includes four stages of petroleum.
Exploration – Exploitation – Separation (primary process) – Changing (secondary process).
Mapping areas that have oil reserves. Done with topographic mapping, rock and soil research around the area is estimated to have reserves of petroleum, seismic activity. Seismic activity is the manufacture of small earthquakes on the ocean floor that could lead geleombang that bounced off the surface of the earth that contain oil.
The process of taking oil from the oil resources. Making process by drilling into the oil layer. Finally out of crude oil. Crude oil could not be utilized.
SEPARATION (PRIMARY PROCESS)
This process is done denag distillation steps. This process is used to separate the hydrocarbon chain lengths and that have different boiling points.
The process begins by heating the oil in the heater. Components that have a higher boiling point and will remain liquid down to the bottom plate on the heater. While the low boiling point of water vapor and will be located on top of the heater plate.
CHANGES (SECONDARY PROCESS)
This process is done to change the fraction to a fraction of the desired one. Fractional change can be done with multiple processes.
The molecule is broken down into molecules – small molecules. Example: change of lubricating oil fractions into gasoline fractions.
Changes in straight chains into branched chain. Example: changes in n-octane into isooctane.
Changes of small molecules into large molecules. Example: change of butene to propene + heptane.
Changes in the fraction of a fraction of the gas residue.
OIL PROCESSING RESULTS
o LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas).
Merupakancampuran LPG hydrocarbons from the gas fraction. Used as a household fuel.
Is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from petrol fractions. Petrol or gasoline is needed community. Pursuant to its function as an engine fuel bemotor. Quality is determined by the octane number of gasoline. The higher the quality the higher the octane number of gasoline. Octane number can be formulated:
Octane Numbers = (% isooctane X 100) + (% n – heptane X 100)
Is a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds are colorless but highly flammable. Kerosene from kerosene fractions. Kerosene is used for fuel oil burner. Kerosene-type jet fuel is being used to fuel airplanes.
Is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from gas oil fractions. Regular diesel used to fuel diesel engines.
Is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from lubricating oil fraction. Lubricants are used to lubricate the engine to prevent friction and smooth working machine components.
Is a mixture of compounds derived from petroleum bitumen fraction. Asphalt is used in the hardening process.