PETROLEUM

PETROLEUM
Petroleum is a mixture of organic compounds containing just two elements: carbon and hydrogen. CH4 or methane, the main ingredient of natural gas, has one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms in each molecule. petroleum is also dubbed as the black gold, the liquid is thick, dark brown or greenish flammable, and are in the upper layers of the few areas in the earth’s crust. Petroleum is composed of a complex mixture of various hydrocarbons, which largely consists of a series of alkanes but vary in appearance, composition, and purity. the oil and natural gas we use today are the remains of microscopic animals and plants–zooplankton and phytoplankton–that floated on the surface of lakes and seas millions of years ago. The plankton died and drifted downward, mixing with sediments of mud and silt. As the centuries passed, layers of sediment covered the decaying animals and plants, burying them deeper and deeper. The pressure and temperature rose, transforming the plankton into hydrocarbons–the compoounds of hydrogen and carbon we call petroleum. Petroleum naturally seeps to the Earth’s surface along fault lines and cracks in rocks, where it gathers in pools as tar, asphalt or bitumen. From this property it gets its name: the Latin petra, meaning “rock,” and oleum, meaning “oil.”Natural gas emerges from the Earth as a colorless, odorless vapor (a chemical called mercaptan provides its characteristic scent). Crude oil ranges in color from almost clear to green, amber, brown or black. It may flow like water or creep like molasses. It is described as “sweet” or “sour depending on the presence or absence of sulfur and other impurities.
Stages burial natural materials undergo chemical changes three times as follows:
a. Diagenesis
This period is not mature zone and cracking occur nondescript (10%), which is divided into three parts, namely:
1) Early diagenesis, ie the transition from a stable compound at the surface of the earth, into compounds that are stable at depths of thousands of meters with temperatures around 40-42oC. At this time the formation of kerogen (phases of the petroleum that is insoluble in organic solvents and inorganic).
2) mid diagenesis, a process of aromatization (long-chain compounds forming aromatic compounds, circumference and has a bond with delocalized electrons).
3) late diagenesis, a process that occurs pengkhelatan by metal organic compounds formed in the past.
Formation of petroleum occurs in late diagenesis and can be known based on the results of exploration.

b. Katagenesis
Katagenesis is oil and wet gas zone. At this time striking cracking occurs, where the chemical changes caused by temperature and depth pendaman (burial), causing thermal decomposition of kerogen.

c. Metagenesis
At this stage occur during thermal destruction of the character of the compound (liquid) into a residue (solid), resulting in organic compounds into compounds that lack hydrogen, and the material to be of no value or worth of the compounds of carbon material (graphite, diamond).
COMPOSITION OF PETROLEUM

Petroleum is a complex mixture. Petroleum consists of hydrocarbons (98%), sulfur (1-3%), Nitrogen (<1%), oxygen (<1%), metals or minerals (<1%), salt (<1%). Hydrocarbons in petroleum dominated by Alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic.
OIL PROCESSING

The treatment process includes four stages of petroleum.
Exploration – Exploitation – Separation (primary process) – Changing (secondary process).

 EXPLORATION
Mapping areas that have oil reserves. Done with topographic mapping, rock and soil research around the area is estimated to have reserves of petroleum, seismic activity. Seismic activity is the manufacture of small earthquakes on the ocean floor that could lead geleombang that bounced off the surface of the earth that contain oil.

 EXPLOITATION
The process of taking oil from the oil resources. Making process by drilling into the oil layer. Finally out of crude oil. Crude oil could not be utilized.

 SEPARATION (PRIMARY PROCESS)
This process is done denag distillation steps. This process is used to separate the hydrocarbon chain lengths and that have different boiling points.

The process begins by heating the oil in the heater. Components that have a higher boiling point and will remain liquid down to the bottom plate on the heater. While the low boiling point of water vapor and will be located on top of the heater plate.
CHANGES (SECONDARY PROCESS)
This process is done to change the fraction to a fraction of the desired one. Fractional change can be done with multiple processes.

• cracking
The molecule is broken down into molecules – small molecules. Example: change of lubricating oil fractions into gasoline fractions.
• rearrangements
Changes in straight chains into branched chain. Example: changes in n-octane into isooctane.
• alkylation
Changes of small molecules into large molecules. Example: change of butene to propene + heptane.
• COOKING
Changes in the fraction of a fraction of the gas residue.

OIL PROCESSING RESULTS

o LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas).
Merupakancampuran LPG hydrocarbons from the gas fraction. Used as a household fuel.

o Gasoline
Is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from petrol fractions. Petrol or gasoline is needed community. Pursuant to its function as an engine fuel bemotor. Quality is determined by the octane number of gasoline. The higher the quality the higher the octane number of gasoline. Octane number can be formulated:

Octane Numbers = (% isooctane X 100) + (% n – heptane X 100)

o kerosene
Is a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds are colorless but highly flammable. Kerosene from kerosene fractions. Kerosene is used for fuel oil burner. Kerosene-type jet fuel is being used to fuel airplanes.

o Solar
Is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from gas oil fractions. Regular diesel used to fuel diesel engines.

o Lubricants
Is a mixture of hydrocarbons derived from lubricating oil fraction. Lubricants are used to lubricate the engine to prevent friction and smooth working machine components.

o Asphalt
Is a mixture of compounds derived from petroleum bitumen fraction. Asphalt is used in the hardening process.

By dhillakhairunnisaikbar

4 comments on “PETROLEUM

  1. would u help me to answer this question lala??
    here is the question the appearance of crude oil depends on it composition. Crude oil can appear w/ various colour. What are the compositions that make it different??

    • hi tia I will try your question …Petroleum shows the wide range of colors that are very different. In general, oil with high specific gravity has blackish green color, whereas if a low specific gravity blackish brown. This color is caused due to various pengotoranm-oxidation compounds such as hydrocarbons, because the hydrocarbons themselves do not show a particular color. Petroleum to stink associated with the influence of constituent molecules, aromatic compounds, nitrogen, or sulfur can give a foul odor on petroleum.Crude oil is about as different as cheese. Varies a lot. color is black/brown,water white,dark green,reddish etc. it depends upon the components it hold (As lighter components it hold as lighter in color and as heaver as dark it will be) density is between 700 – 1000 kg/cum and kinematic viscosity can be anywhere between 1 and 8 cSt (centi stokes)Petroleum consists of a complex mixture of different hydrocarbons, the majority of the alkane series, but vary in appearance, composition, and purity. Crude oil consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons, namely:
      • Alkanes
      Alkane compounds most commonly found is the n-octane and isooctane (2,2,4-trimethyl pentane)
      • Hydrocarbons aromatisDiantaranya is ethyl benzene
      • Among other cycloalkanes ethyl cyclopentane and cyclohexane
      • Sulfur (0.01 to 0.7%)
      • Nitrogen (0.01 to 0.9%)
      • Oxygen (from 0.06 to 0.4%)
      • Carbon dioxide [CO2]
      • Hydrogen sulfide [H2S]

    • I have a few references about the events of petroleum formation to help answer your questions

      Barthelot (1866) suggested that there is oil in the alkali metals, which in a free state with a high temperature will be in contact with CO2 to form asitilena. Then Mandeleyev (1877) suggested that petroleum is formed due to the influence of working steam on metal carbides in the earth. Even more extreme is the claim that some experts argued that oil started to form since prehistoric times, long before the Earth was formed, and in conjunction with the formation of the earth. The statement is based on facts discovered hydrocarbon material in some meteor rocks and in the atmosphere some other planet.

      Of the many hypotheses that are often raised is the theory of biogenesis, as it could be. The theory of the formation of petroleum continue to evolve with the development of technology and engineering analysis of petroleum, until later in 1984 G. D. Hobson in his article entitled “The Occurrence and Origin of Oil and Gas”.

      Based on the theory of biogenesis, petroleum is formed due to a small leak permanently in the carbon cycle. The carbon cycle is occurring between the atmosphere to the earth’s surface, which is described by the two arrows in the opposite direction, where the carbon is transported in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In the first direction, assimilate carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which means that CO2 extracted from the atmosphere by photosynthetic organisms land and sea.

      At the direction of the second CO2 released back into the atmosphere through respiration of living things (plants, animals, and microorganisms). In this process, a small leak that allows a small portion of carbon that are not released back into the atmosphere in the form of CO2, but that eventually transformed into fossils that can be burned. Fossil fuels is only a very small amount. Organic material is oxidized during burial. Consequently, the major part of the organic carbon in the form of a very small carbonate in sedimentary rocks.

      At first these compounds (such as carbohydrates, protein and fat) produced by living creatures according to their needs, such as self-defense, to breed or as a physical component and living it. The components in question may be constituents of cells, membranes, pigments, fat, sugar or protein from plants, fungi, yeast, protozoa, bacteria, invertebrates or cold-blooded animals and the heat, so it can be found in the air, on the surface, in water or in the soil.

      When living things die, then 99.9% of carbon compounds and living will again experience the cycle of the food chain, while the remaining 0.1% of the compounds of carbon trapped in the soil and in sediments. This is what is the origin of compounds known as fossil or petroleum embryos.

      These embryos had a transfer and will accumulate in one place that may be a reservoir and there is a drift with the flow of water to accumulate at the bottom of the sea, and there is also due to differences in pressure below the sea surface and accumulate on the surface and some are terendapkan at sea level in the small current.

      Small Embryo accumulate in humid environmental conditions, dark and smells of the minerals and sediment, and form large molecules known as geopolymer. Organic compounds buried will remain with their respective characters that correspond to specific materials and environment creation. Furthermore, these organic compounds will undergo geological processes deep within the earth. First akanmengalami diagenesis process, wherein the organic compound and a compound beings are dead and buried up to 600 meters below the surface and the temperature below 50 ° C.

      In this condition of organic compounds originating and living beings began to lose force oxygenated due to decarboxylation reaction and dehidratasi. The deeper burial of the case, the hot environment, the addition of depth of 30-40 m will be rising the temperature of 1 ° C. In more depth and 600 m to 3000 m, burial temperatures will range between 50 – 150 ° C, a process called geologic both katagenesis will take place, then the pent geopolymer Mulal unraveled due to geothermal.

      The components of petroleum in the process began to take shape and compounds derived characteristics and certain living creatures released back of the molecule. When the depth continues towards the center of the earth, the more the temperature rises, and if the depth exceeds 3000 m and temperatures above 150 ° C, the organic materials can be broken down into small bermolekul gas, and this process is called metagenesis.

      Once the process is bypassed geology, petroleum is formed together with bio-markers. Molecular fossils that have been formed will undergo displacement (migration) due to environmental conditions or the earth’s crust are always moving average as far as 5 cm per year, so it will be trapped in a porous rock, or the next will migrate to form an oil well. If the sampled rock is jailed oil (host rock) or oil trapped in the cavity of the earth, to be found fossilized organic compounds. Fossils of these compounds were determined structure uses several methods of analysis, so as to explain the origin of fossils, forming materials, petroleum migration, and the relationship between the oil with another oil and petroleum relationship with the host rock.

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