Hydrocarbon Derivatives

Hydrocarbon Derivatives
-Organic compounds are divided into two main classes: hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives
-Hydrocarbon derivatives are molecular compounds of carbon and at least one other element that is not hydrogen
-Organic halides are organic compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by halogen atoms
-Common organic halides include freons (chlorofluorocarbons) and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene)
-Naming halides uses the same format as branched-chain hydrocarbons
-The branch is named by shortening the halogen name to fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, or iodo-
-In drawing organic halides using IUPAC names, draw the parent chain and add branches at locations specified in the name
eg.

Cl Cl
| |
H-C-C-H
| |
H H

1,2-dichloroethane

-Organic halides react fast which is explained from the idea that no strong covalent bond is broken – the electron rearrangement does not involve separation of the carbon atoms
-Addition of halogens could be added to alkynes which results in alkenes or alkanes
-By adding halogens to alkenes, the product could undergo another addition step, by adding halogens to the parent chain, the double bond has to become a single bond in order to accommodate the halogens
eg.

Br Br Br Br
| | | |
H-C=C-H + Br-Br => H-C-C-H
| |
Br Br

-By adding hydrogen halides to unsaturated compounds will produce isomers

H H H H H H H H H
| | | | | | | | |
H-C=C-C-H + H-Cl => H-C-C-C-H OR H-C-C-C-H
| | | | | | |
H Cl H H HCl H

-Substitution reaction is a reaction that involves the breaking of a carbon-hydrogen bond in an alkane or aromatic ring and the replacement of the hydrogen atom with another atom or group of atoms
-With light energy it enables the substitution reaction to move at a noticeable rate eg. C3H8 + BR2 + light => C3H7Br + HBR
-Through substitution reaction, in order to name the reaction product, just indicate the location number of the replacement, followed by the halogen prefix (eg. Bromo-) and then state the type of parent chain. Also indicate the second product created from substitution reaction (hydrogen bromide) eg. propane + bromine => 1-bromopropane + hydrogen bromide
-Elimination is an organic reaction in which an alkyl halide reacts with hydroxide ion to produce an alkene by removing a hydrogen and halide ion from the molecule

H H H H H H
| | | | | |
H-C-C-C-H + OH => H-C=C-C-H + H-O + Br
| | | | |
H BrH H H

-Alcohols have properties that can be explained by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a hydrocarbon chain
-Short-chain alcohols are very soluble in water because they form hydrogen bonds with water molecules
-Alcohols are used as solvents in organic reactions because they are effective for both polar and non-polar compounds
-To name alcohols, the –e is dropped from the end of the alkane name and is replaced with –ol eg. Methane => methanol
-Methanol is also called wood alcohol because it was once made by heating wood shavings in the absence of air
-These days, methanol is prepared by combining carbon monoxide and hydrogen at high temperatures and pressure with the use of a catalyst
-Methanol, however, is poisonous to humans. Consuming a small amount could cause blindness or death
-When naming alcohols with more than two carbon atoms, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated
-Alcohols that contain more than one hydroxyl group are called polyalcohols, their names indicate the positions of the hydroxyl groups eg. 1,2-ethanediol
-Alcohols undergo elimination reactions to produce alkenes through being catalyzed by concentrated sulfuric acid, which removes or eliminates a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group

H H H H
| | | |
H-C-C-H + acid => H-C=C-H + H-O
| | |
H OH H

ethanol + acid => ethene + water

-Ethers is a family of organic compounds that contain an oxygen atom bonded between two hydrocarbon groups, and have the general formula R1-O-R2
-To name ethers add oxy to the prefix for the smaller hydrocarbon group and join it to the alkane name of the larger hydrocarbon group
eg.

CH3-O-C2H5

methoxyethane

-Ethers have low solubility in water, low boiling points, and have no evidence of hydrogen bonding
-Ethers undergo chemical change only when treated with powerful reagents under vigorous conditions
-Ethers are formed by the condensation reaction of alcohols
-Condensation reaction is the joining of two molecules and the elimination of a small molecule, usually water
-The carbonyl functional group, -CO-, consists of a carbon atom with a double covalent bond to an oxygen atom
-Aldehydes has the carbonyl group on the terminal carbon atom of a chain
-To name aldehydes, replace the final –e of the name of the corresponding alkane with the suffix –al
-Small aldehyde molecules have sharp, irritating odors whereas larger molecules have flowery odors and is used to make perfumes
-A ketone has the carbonyl group present anywhere in a carbon chain except at the end of the chain
-The difference in position of the carbonyl group affects the chemical reactivity, and enables us to distinguish aldehydes from ketones empirically
-To name ketones, replace the –e ending of the name of the corresponding alkane with –one
-The simplest ketone is acetone (propanone), CH3COCH3
-The family of organic compounds, carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl functional group, -COOH, which includes both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups
-Carboxylic acids are found in citrus fruits, and other foods with properties of having a sour taste
-Carboxylic acids also have distinctive odors (like sweat from a person’s feet)
-The molecules of carboxylic acids are polar and form hydrogen bonds both with each other and with water molecules
-Carboxylic acids acid properties, so a litmus test can separate these compounds from other hydrocarbon derivatives
-To name carboxylic acids, replace the –e ending of the alkane name with –oic, followed by the word “acid”
-Methanoic acid, HCOOH, is the first member of the carboxylic acid family
-Some acids contain two or three carbonyl groups such as oxalic acid, and citric acid

COOH CH2-COOH
| |
COOH HO-C-COOH
|
CH2-COOH

oxalic acid citric acid

-When carboxylic acids undergo a condensation reaction, in which a carboxylic acid combines with another reactant, it forms two products – an organic compound and water
-Esterification is the condensation reaction in which a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol to produce ester and water
-carboxylic acid + alcohol => ester + water
-The ester functional group is similar to that of an acid, except that the hydrogen atom of the carboxyl group is replaced by a hydrocarbon branch
-Esters are responsible for the odors of fruits and flowers and are also added to foods for aroma and taste
-To name an ester, determine name of the alkyl group from the alcohol used in the esterification reaction
-Next change the ending of the acid name from “–oic acid” to “–oate”
-ethanoic acid + methanol => methyl ethanoate + water
-Artificial flavorings are made by mixing synthetic esters to give similar odors of the natural substance
-An amide consists of a carboxyl group bonded to a nitrogen atom
-Amides could be formed in condensation reactions
-Amides occur in proteins, the large molecules found in all living organisms
-Peptide bonds is the joining of amino acids together in proteins
-To name amides, have the name of the alkane with the same number of carbon atoms, with the final –e replaced by the suffix –amide
-Change the suffix of the carboxylic acid from “–oic acid” to –amide to have the same name results eg. ethanamide
-Amines consist of one or more hydrocarbon groups bonded to a nitrogen atom
-Through X-Ray diffraction reveals that the amine functional group is a nitrogen atom bonded by single covalent bonds to one, two, or three carbon atoms
-Amines are polar substances that re extremely soluble in water as they form strong hydrogen bonds both to each other and to water
-Amines have peculiar, horrible odors (eg. smell of rotting fish)
-The name of amines include the names of the alkyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom, followed by the suffix –amine eg. methylamine
-Amines with one, two, or three hydrocarbon groups attached to the central nitrogen atom are referred to as primary, secondary, and tertiary
-Primary amines is when a hydrogen atom attached to the nitrogen atom is replaced by a hydrocarbon group
-Secondary amines are when two hydrocarbon groups replaces the hydrogen atoms and tertiary amines replaces all of the hydrogen atoms with hydrocarbon groups
-Amines are used in the synthesis of medicines
-A group of amines found in many plants are called alkaloids
-Many alkaloids influence the function of the central nervous systems of animals
-Substitution – alkane/aromatic + halogen + light => organic halide + hydrogen halide
-Elimination – alkyl halide + OH => alkene + water |+ water + halide ion
-Elimination – alcohol + acid => alkene + water

By dhillakhairunnisaikbar

5 comments on “Hydrocarbon Derivatives

  1. To name an aldehyde, replacing the final-e of the corresponding alkane name with the suffix-al
    Small-molecule aldehydes have sharp, irritating odor while larger molecules have the smell of flowers and used to make perfume
    liquid that smells somewhat uneasy is used as a raw material in the polymer industry and in the laboratory as a preservative for animal examples. however, interestingly, aldehyde higher molar mass, such as cinnamic aldehyde has a pleasant smell and is used in the manufacture of perfumes. Can you explain why it happened?

  2. ok Dhilla i’ll answer ur question
    Low molecular weight aldehydes have pungent smell. For example, HCHO (methanal or formaldehyde) and CH3CHO (ethanal or acetaldehyde). With increasing molecular mass aldehydes, the smell became more fragrant. Several aldehydes of aromatic hydrocarbons has a distinctive odor of refreshing.

  3. hello dilla😀 Low molecular weight aldehydes have pungent smell. For example, HCHO (formaldehyde metanalatau) and CH3CHO (ethanal or acetaldehyde). With increasing molecular mass aldehydes, the smell became more fragrant. Several aldehydes of hydrocarbons aromatismemiliki distinctive smell refreshing. Formaldehyde obtained through oxidation of methanol.

    significant factors affecting the molecular mass aldehydes are getting smaller its mass then smelling aldehydes and if the higher molecular mass, aromatic aldehydes

  4. Oke lala i’ll try to answer yours. Small molecule has low mass molar and big molecule has high mass molar. The difference in mass molar cause the odour be different. So small molecule has annoying odour while the big one not.

  5. It happened Due to an increase in molecular mass of low molecular weight aldehydes have pungent smell. For example, HCHO (methanal or formaldehyde) and CH3CHO (ethanal or acetaldehyde). With increasing molecular mass aldehydes, the smell became more fragrant. Several aldehydes from aromatic hydrocarbons have a distinctive odor that is refreshing.

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s