Organic chemistry is the scientific study of branching chemistry on the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and synthesis of organic compounds. Organic compounds are constructed mainly by carbon and hydrogen, and may contain other elements such as nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, halogens and sulfur. Original definition of organic chemistry is derived from the misconception that all organic compounds must have come from living organisms, but it has been proved that there are some exceptions. In fact, life is also very dependent on inorganic chemistry, as an example, the enzyme is basing his work on transition metals such as iron and copper, as well as teeth and bone composition is a mixture of organic and inorganic senyama.
Organic compounds, which are compounds associated with life processes, is the subject of organic chemistry. Among the various types of organic compounds, four main categories were found in all living things: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
1. Carbohydrates (saccharides)
Almost all organisms use carbohydrates as an energy source. In addition, some carbohydrates into structural material. Carbohydrates are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with the general formula Cn (H2O) n. Seeing the empirical formula, the compound can be believed as “hydrates of carbon”, so-called carbohydrates. The empirical formula as it is not only owned by carbohydrates but also by hydrocarbons such as acetic acid. Therefore, a compound including carbohydrates not only in terms of the empirical formula, but the most important is the formula structure. From the structural formula will be seen that there are important functional groups present on the carbohydrate molecules of carbonyl groups (aldehydes and ketones). Functional groups that determine the nature of the compound. Based on the existing cluster in carbohydrate molecules, the compounds are defined as polihidroksialdehida and polihidroksiketon. Saccharide term itself comes from the Latin and refers to the sweetness of simple carbohydrates compounds.
Carbohydrates ter for the four major groups, namely:
Monosaccharides (CnH2nOnMonosakarida (from Greek mono: one, sacchar: sugar) is a carbohydrate compound in the simplest form of sugar). Monosaccharides are classified by the number of carbon atoms they contain (trioses, tetrosa, pentose, hexose).
Trioses is a monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms. Example: The glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone
Tertrosa is a monosaccharide containing 4 carbon atoms. Example: Erutrulose
Containing 5 carbon atoms. in the cells contained in the Nucleic Acid (DNA, RNA) and several coenzymes. Example: ribose, and deoxyribose
Containing 6 carbon atoms. Example: glucose, fructose, and galactose.
Disaccharide is a carbohydrate molecule composed of two monosaccharides, linked by glycoside bonds. Glycoside bond formed between atoms C 1 a monosaccharide O atom of OH with other monosaccharides. 1 mole of disaccharide hydrolysis will produce 2 moles of monosaccharide.
Maltose is a disaccharide and is the result of the partial hydrolysis of starch (starch). Maltose molecules composed of α-D-glucose and β-D-glucose.
Sucrose found in sugar cane and sugar beet. In everyday life known as table sugar sucrose. Sucrose is composed of glucose and fructose molecules are linked by 1,2-α bonds. Sucrose hydrolyzed by the enzyme invertase produces α-D-glucose and β-D-fructose. Sugar mixture is called inversion sugar, sweeter than sucrose.
Lactose is the major component found in mother’s milk and cow’s milk. Lactose is composed
of molecule β-D-galactose and α-D-glucose linked by bonds 1.4 ‘-β.
Oligosaccharide is a combination of monosaccharide molecules whose numbers between 2 (two) to 8 (eight) monosaccharide molecules. So that oligosaccharide may be a disaccharide, trisakarida and others.
Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides, containing many monosaccharide units linked by glycoside bonds. Complete hydrolysis of polysaccharides will produce monosaccharides.
Polysaccharides consist of:
Homopolisakarida; formed by the same monosaccharides, such as starch and glycogen molecules. Reserve food starch in plant cells, while glycogen reserves in animal cells.
Starch; composed of amylose and amylopectin
Glycogen; is a polymer of glucose molecules. In animal cells are very few in number. But in molluscs, liver, muscle glycogen contains many.
Inulin; substances are abundant in certain plant root cells, is classified polosakarida hydrolyzed fructose produces fructose.
Cellulose; is a polymer of sellobiosa with chemical formula (C12H22O11). Abundant cellulose in the cell walls of higher plants that serve as a protective cell.
Lipids are organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Lipids can be extracted from animal tissue and fat solvent memalui tumbuham. These fatty acids have two areas:
a. hydrocarbon chain; hydrophobic insoluble in water and less reactive;
b. carboxylic acid group; mengion in solution. Dissolved in water, it reacts
A glycerol molecule contains three hydroxyl (OH-). A long-chain fatty acids have a carbon atom (from 4 to 24) by having a carboxyl (-COOH) at one end. Fatty acids in the fat attached to the glycerol molecule by a process that involves the removal of water.
A fat molecule molecule constructed by combining glycerol with three fatty acid molecules. In human health, the consumption of unsaturated fats are preferable to saturated fat consumption.
Protein is one of the compounds of the most complex of all organic compounds, which are composed of amino acids that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms, and sometimes sulfur and phosphorus. Protein plays an important role in the structure and function of all living cells and viruses. Protein molecules are larger than carbohydrates and lipids. Unit building blocks of protein are amino acids. Certain amino acids also have atomic sulfur, phosphorus, or other elements such as iron or copper.
Role of protein:
• as a catalyst for many chemical reactions,
• provide structural rigidity,
• monitor the permeability of the cell membrane,
• regulate the levels of metabolites necessary
• causing movement, and
• monitor the activity of genes
Protein is very important for living things, because all the enzymes involved in metabolic reactions are proteins but not all proteins are enzymes
4. Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids are macromolecules that holds a very important role in the life of the organism due to the genetic information stored in it. . Nucleic acids are also called polynucleotide as a molecule composed of nucleotides as a monomer. Each nucleotide has a structure consisting of a phosphate group, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base or nucleotide bases (base N).
There are two kinds of nucleic acids, the deoxyribonucleic acid or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid or ribonucleic acid (RNA). Judging from its structure, the difference between the two kinds of nucleic acids is mainly located in the sugar component pentosanya. Pentosanya sugar in RNA is ribose, whereas in DNA sugar pentosanya having lost one O atom at position C number 2 ‘so called sugar 2’-deoxyribose.
Other structural differences between DNA and RNA is in its base N. Tongue N, both the DNA and the RNA, has a structure in the form of heterocyclic aromatic ring (containing C and N) and can be grouped into two categories, namely purine and pyrimidine. Purine bases have two rings (bicyclic), whereas the pyrimidine bases have only one ring (monocyclic).
The function of nucleic acids are:
§ Controlling biosynthetic activity in cells
§ Bringing genetic information.